Miércoles, 04 Junio 2014 14:43

Dividir y recomponer un átomo sin fisión nuclear Destacado

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¿Dividir átomos? Eso parece sinónimo inamovible de la fisión nuclear y la radioactividad. Sin embargo, gracias a las exóticas condiciones físicas vinculadas a la mecánica cuántica, unos investigadores de la Universidad de Bonn en Alemania recientemente han mostrado cómo puede ser dividido un átomo individual en dos mitades separadas y luego ser devuelto a su estado original.

Aunque la palabra "átomo" significa literalmente "indivisible", las leyes de la mecánica cuántica permiten dividir átomos (de modo similar a lo que ocurre con los rayos de luz) y reunificarlos.

Las leyes de la mecánica cuántica permiten que, bajo las condiciones adecuadas, un objeto exista simultáneamente en varios estados. El equipo de Dieter Meschede del Instituto de Física Aplicada de la citada universidad ha logrado con éxito lo que puede describirse, en algunos aspectos, como mantener a un átomo individual simultáneamente en dos lugares a más de diez micrómetros de distancia. Ésta es una distancia enorme para un átomo. Después, el átomo fue devuelto a su estado original.

El equipo de Andreas Steffen y Andrea Alberti decidió intentar valerse de un "puente cuántico" al permitir que el átomo tocase átomos adyacentes mientras era dividido, de modo que ambas mitades estuvieran "conectadas".

Los frágiles efectos cuánticos sólo pueden aparecer a las temperaturas más bajas, del orden de unas pocas fracciones de grado por encima del cero absoluto, el cual está en la franja de los 273 grados centígrados bajo cero.

Los átomos tienen un espín que puede ir hacia dos sentidos. Dependiendo de la dirección, con un láser se puede mover el átomo hacia la derecha o hacia la izquierda. La clave está en que el espín del átomo puede estar orientado hacia ambas direcciones simultáneamente. Debido a esto, si al mismo tiempo se mueve al átomo hacia la derecha y hacia la izquierda, éste se dividirá.

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