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Congelar la imagen de los movimientos ultra veloces de los electrones Destacado

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El nuevo método desarrollado por un equipo de expertos de Francia y Canadá permitirá estudiar las rapidísimas acciones de los electrones, usando para ello pulsos de luz aislados, con duraciones muy precisas, e increíblemente rápidos.

Los intercambios electrónicos durante las reacciones químicas suelen producirse en escalas de tiempo de menos de un femtosegundo, o una millonésima de una milmillonésima de segundo. El único modo de congelar en una imagen el movimiento de un electrón es usando pulsos de luz con duraciones aún más cortas que las rápidas idas y venidas de los electrones, es decir del orden de los attosegundos. Un attosegundo es 0,000000000000000001 segundos. Para hacernos una idea de lo pequeño de este número podemos decir que un attosegundo sería con respecto a un segundo algo no muy distinto de lo que éste último sería con respecto a la edad del universo (unos 14.000 millones de años).

Desde hace algún tiempo, hay medios técnicos para crear pulsos de attosegundos de duración. Estos medios se basan en la interacción de haces láser ultrapotentes con la materia. Sin embargo, las ráfagas de luz resultantes se producen en "trenes" (conjuntos de pulsos muy cercanos entre sí en el tiempo) que no son muy apropiadas para bastantes de los tipos de experimentos que se necesita hacer a fin de poder estudiar detalladamente las acciones de los electrones.

El único modo de congelar en una imagen el movimiento de un electrón es usando pulsos de luz con duraciones del orden de los attosegundos. (Foto: Fabien Quéré, French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique)Pulsos aislados y precisos en tiempo serían mucho más apropiados. Eso es exactamente lo que Fabien Quéré y Henri Vincenti de la Comisión de Energía Atómica (ahora Comisión de Energía Atómica y de Energías Alternativas) de Francia, junto con colegas en el Laboratorio de Óptica Aplicada, en Francia, y el Consejo de Investigación Nacional de Canadá, han creado usando un nuevo método, al que se ha dado en llamar "Efecto Faro de Attosegundos". La nueva técnica se ha presentado a través de la Sociedad Óptica de América (OSA), una organización fundada en Estados Unidos en 1916, con sede en Washington, DC, y que reúne a unos 17.000 científicos, ingenieros, y demás profesionales de la óptica y la fotónica de más de 100 naciones. Aproximadamente el 52 por ciento de los miembros de esta sociedad reside fuera de Estados Unidos.


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